Posts Tagged ‘sensor


Distributed Temperature Sensing has drawn high attention at the Jicable 2011 Conference in Versailles, France

Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) Systems for high voltage cable systems were frequently discussed in course of the recent Jicable conference, the 8th International Conference on Power Insulated Cables.

Several papers on online condition monitoring based on fibre optic temperature sensing were presented. In more papers DTS was mentioned as being part of the high voltage cable project discussed.


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The necessity analysis of distributed fiber-optic temperature monitoring by Xiamen power cable alarm case study YAN Youxiang, SU Xueyuan – Xiamen power Ultility, Xiamen, Fujian; China XIAO Chuanqiang – SINDIA, Beijing; China

Dynamic rating of transmission cables
Erik JACOBSEN, Jonas Fabricius NIELSEN, Steen Beck NIELSEN – SEAS-NVE Holding, Haslev; Denmark Sven SALWIN – nkt cables A/S, Copenhagen; Denmark Karl-Heinz COHNEN, Andreas MOHRS – nkt cables GmbH, Köln; Germany

Real time load optimisation of cable based transmission grids Rasmus Schmidt OLSEN, Unnur Stella GUDMUNDSDÓTTIR –, Fredericia; Denmark Joachim HOLBOELL – Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark

Read more about Jicable in general:

June 2011 Versailles Congress Centre – Jicable’11 – 8th International Conference on Power Insulated Cables

What is Jicable’11?
Jicable ’11 is an international forum for the exchange of information in the fields of research, industrial development, installation, operation and diagnoses relating to insulated power cables and their accessories from low voltage and special cables up to ultra high voltage cables and cables of new technologies.

Why is Jicable’11 important?

Insulated power cables are increasingly used in electrical power transmission and distribution networks. This is due to the significant progress achieved in the development of new technologies with higher performances, and supported by increasing environmental pressure. Cables are recognised as a reliable means for the transportation and distribution of electrical energy. Jicable’11 will allow in-depth analysis of the State-of-the-Art and future perspectives : new materials, evolution in technologies, improvements in fabrication process, improvement of maintenance policies and remaining life estimation, lessons learned from service experience, dielectric phenomena, thermal and thermo-mechanical behaviour, new innovative technical solutions for high power transmission : new superconductive materials as well as a closer look at major submarine cable projects connecting High Voltage networks in many countries.

Who will be taking part in Jicable’11?

As in past Jicable conferences held in 1984, 1987, 1991, 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007 (581 delegates from 48 countries), Jicable’11 will prove very useful to the following segments of the cable industry : researchers, engineers, decision-makers, raw materials suppliers, manufacturers, consultants, installers and users.

The following topics will be discussed:

    • LV and MV Cables Systems
    • HV and EHV Cables Systems
    • Submarine Cables
    • Economy and costs of Cable Systems
    • Ageing, Diagnosis, Maintenance, Remaining Life Estimation and Management
    • Cables for the Future
    • Technical challenges encountered with cable systems
    • Industrial and Special Cables
    • Cables, environment and sustainable development
    • Design
    • Testing Methods

Jicable 2011 was organized with the support of:

  • S.E.E. – Société de l’Électricité, de l’Électronique et des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication
  • CIGRÉ – International Council on Large Electric Systems
  • ERDF – Électricité Réseau Distribution France
  • RTE – Réseau de Transport d’Électricité
  • SYCABEL – Syndicat Professionnel des Fabricants de Fils et Câbles Électriques
  • SERCE – Syndicat des Entreprises de Génie Électrique et Climatique

The Jicable’s Booklet

Discover the Jicable’s Booklet which contains all practical information about Jicable including registration procedures and technical programme

Download the Jicable’s Booklet


LIOS Technology – Company Milestones – 10 Years On

The year 2010 marks the 10th year for LIOS Technology in the industry. The formal company launch dates back to August 2000. LIOS is a true story of successful innovation, which has reached its ambitious goals by being creative, responsive and agile. This list of exciting events and projects mark certainly the important milestones of LIOS’ first decade of history.

Official Launch of LIOS Technology GmbH, 01.08.2000
Based on initiated development work at Felten & Guilleaume LIOS was launched to market its fibre optic sensing solutions actively for T&D assets, fire detection and oil/gas exploration.
Mont Blanc Tunnel, 30.4.2001
Tunnel operators have chosen the LIOS fire detection system for the Mont Blanc tunnel where the disaster in 1999 triggered a widespread public debate.
FibroLaser II® Protecting Bangkok Metro, 15.7.2001
LIOS Technology and Siemens BT Fire Safety are proud to supply FibroLaser II® for the surveillance of some 50 km underground tunnels in Thailand.
World Premiere of the New Optical Coil Protection System, 10.6.2003
OTTO JUNKER GmbH and LIOS Technology GmbH have concluded a research and development contract for monitoring refractory linings of induction furnaces. In the meantime the system has an impressive track record and reached excellent market reputation: Crucible cracks and erosion are detected and localised reliably and precisely and normal refractory wear is under close control.
Dynamic Rating of a 145 kV XLPE Power Cable in Sao Paulo, 20.12.2004
LIOS Technology provides its multi-channel distributed temperature measurement system to AES Eletropaulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil for dynamic power cable ampacity monitoring – it is the first installation of that kind in entire South America.
Permanent Downhole Temperature Sensing – A Success even for Low Cost Wells, 23.08.2005
In a pilot project initiated by Shell International Exploration and Production (SIEP) with LIOS Technology the feasibility and economic added value of permanent downhole temperature sensing has been successfully demonstrated in a number of recently deployed on- and offshore projects.
10km Within Reach! , 21.11.2005
LIOS Technology introduces its next generation temperature sensing instrument. The new product series delivers increased performance and an extended measurement range of up to 10 kilometres at a single end multimode fibre.
Beijing Olympics 2008 – Enhanced Power Grid Monitored by LIOS, 7.6.2006
Commissioning of LIOS’ power cable monitoring systems was completed at Beijing, China. The newly built 220 kV circuits supply the Olympic Park and are operated by Beijing Electric Power Corporation.
RTTR Went On-line in Stockholm, 23.10.2006
Together with Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) a parallel run of 245 kV cables installed in a tunnel near Stockholm (Sweden) is being continuously rated by RTTR. Real time temperature and current readings serve to compute the temperature of the conductor and perform emergency ratings looking into the future.
Setting Standards for Highly Reliable DTS Performance, 19.12.2007
The LIOS OFDR design and its industrial production set standards in reliable DTS performance and smooth operation. Excellent Mean-time-between-failures (MTBF) figures of 28 years were reached based on the latest statistical field analysis of the current DTS product series.
LIOS Head Office Moves Premises, 5.10.2008
LIOS Technology GmbH is excited to announce that due to the expansion of the company and to allow for future growth, our Head Office moves premises in October 2008.
Investments in Smartgrid Technologies Encourage LIOS to Open US office, 1.9.2009
LIOS Technology announces that it has opened an office in Morganville, New Jersey to service the growing demand for distributed temperature solutions in the United States.
Dynamic Wind Farm Load Patterns Recorded by Long Range DTS, 15.10.2009
The biggest Danish utility owner has successfully completed the installation of LIOS’ Single Mode DTS equipment to monitor the power cable temperature of an offshore UK wind farm.
Turnkey Solutions for Various Markets, 01.08.2010
Building on an innovative development in the field of fibre optic sensor engineering, LIOS Technology provides turnkey solutions in various markets for modern asset management and global condition monitoring. Our comprehensive product line of DTS systems based on multimode and singlemode fibres with ranges up to 30 km and 16 channel multiplexing have become a well accepted and powerful tool in the power industry, in fire detection and downhole well monitoring.

Highest DTS Installation Completed in Chile

LIOS Technology has completed a power cable monitoring project at a South American mining facility of Codelco in Chile. The Korean made 220 kV, 630 mm 2 XLPE high voltage cable system includes  fibre optics in metal tube (FIMT) and supplies pumps, SAG mills (Semi-Autogenous Grinding) and other grinding equipment.

The Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) condition monitoring system is installed at the control room at 3500 m above sea level providing continuous thermal assessment of the highly loaded power circuit. Among LIOS Technology’s more than 2000 permanent DTS installations this is certainly the one at highest altitude.

Read more:

Link Impressive track record of more than 2000 installations in permanent operation
Link Smart Grid: Real time ampacity predictions of power cable and aerial line installations
Link Distributed temperature monitoring of power cables

Congratulation to LIOS Technology GmbH for 10 successful years!

LIOS Technology, Cologne

The team of LIOS Technology, Cologne

This year LIOS Technology can celebrate its 10 years anniversary. But the activity which formed the basis of today’s LIOS Technology already took its start in 1995. An innovative group within the German cable company, Felten&Guilleaume (F&G) saw an opportunity for developing a distributed temperature sensing system technique for condition monitoring of power cables, and hence making it possible to exploit the full capacity potential of installed high voltage cable routes.


Containment Integrity Monitoring Solutions for LNG Carriers – Cryogenic tests for the validation of a cargo containment system for LNG ships

This report shows the results of cryogenic test for confirming the KC-1 cargo containment system which will be applied to LNG ship. Open mock-up tank has already been built to prove the fabrication, assemble and construction procedures of KC-1 membrane system for ship application. A LNG carrier closed type mock-up tank as recently built, hereafter CMT, of the KC-1 type membrane system.

Experimental stress analysis systems equipped with strain gages and fibre optical sensors have been reflected in the design to perform a cryogenic test. CMT cryogenic tests were conducted by filling and discharging LNG 5 times and all the tests have been successfully completed in October 2009.

The purpose of construction and cryogenic tests of CMT are as follows

(1) Confirming the stability of KC-1 membrane system during cryogenic test

(2) Improving the quality control system of membrane and insulation system of LNG tank which assures the reliability of LNG carrier

(3) Evaluating the applicability of automatic welding machine on KC-1 membrane system

(4) Intensifying the techniques of design, material, fabrication and inspection required for the design of LNG carriers

This size of the tank is 12m long, 14 m wide, 7m high and inner volume of 250m3. Its construction was commenced in September 2008 and brought to completion in April 2009.

CMT is connected to DCS (Distributed Control System) of Pilot LNG Plant and operations are controlled at remote control room. CMT’s cryogenic tests were performed by repeated charging and discharging LNG for 5 times. Before operation, pre-cooldown test were also performed to lower the temperature of primary membrane to LNG temperature by spraying liquid nitrogen. Construction and cryogenic tests of CMT adopted in KC-1 membrane system were made with the purpose of consolidating the design/fabrication technology, establishing the building system for LNG carriers, establishing the quality control for construction procedure and proving the KC-1 membrane system experimentally.

The following figure shows the variation of liquid level and primary membrane’s temperature during operation. IB and IBS spaces filled with nitrogen were sampled regular intervals to check the leakage of LNG during operation. After the operation of 1st and 5th pre cool down, CMT was opened and primary membrane system was checked through visual inspection.

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) normally has a temperature of -162°C, so all the storage facilities such as insulation and hull systems are subject to temperature decrease caused by long-term storage. RTD sensors were installed at several points of CMT for the purpose of monitoring CMT only for the period of operation. The LIOS fibre optic temperature measurement for CMT structure has been developed to investigate the temperature distribution of KC-1 membrane system.

In case of KC-1 type cargo containment system, cone type membrane anchor structures are fixed in hull and support the reaction force of membrane during operation. Since the fibre optic sensor cable is coiled around cone anchor and measures the temperature every 50cm interval, it is possible to investigate the temperature distribution of CMT.

Two fibre optic cables were installed in the insulation and a third one was included on the cone anchor to investigate the distribution of temperature during operation. The following figure shows the whole temperature distribution of CMT during operation. All the measured data were plotted at the maximum LNG level.

The LIOS DTS system as well as the design of the applied fibre optic sensor cable could be successfully approved as an effective and reliable integrity monitoring system for the KC-1 cargo containment system. The cryogenic temperature measurements are precise and stable in course of the entire test period.


Pipeline Monitoring – Locating leakages at oil and gas pipelines

Leaks occurring in underground pipelines constitute a substantial danger for both, human beings and the environment. Oil escaping from pipelines pollutes the earth and ground water.

Leaking gas creates the danger of fires and explosions. In addition, leaks bring about large economic losses. It is extremely important to locate leaks as soon as they occur and to be able to locate small leaks. Until now, monitoring systems have only reacted to large leaks and have not been able to pinpoint them accurately. Oil leaks cause temperature anomalies below the pipeline, whereas escaping gas induces a temperature decrease above the pipeline due to the easing of pressure.

Efficient leak location and the long-term monitoring of gas and oil pipelines can therefore be achieved by measuring the temperatures along a pipeline and observing how these temperatures vary over time. Optical-fibre, temperature-measuring technology presents new opportunities in this connection.

An optical-fibre, temperature-measuring cable is laid along a pipeline, enabling the temperatures in the ground to be measured simultaneously over long pipeline distances with a high degree of locational accuracy.

The sensor cable is completely passive electrically and can therefore by fitted to pipelines where a high risk of explosions exists.

The leakage-location principle by means of optical-fibre, temperature-measuring technology

LIOS Leakage Detection for Oil Pipelines

LIOS Leakage Detection for Oil Pipelines

LIOS Leakage Detection for Gas Pipelines

LIOS Leakage Detection for Gas Pipelines

Using optical-fibre, temperature measuring to monitor pipelines makes possible:

  • The economical location of leakages and the long-term monitoring of pipelines
  • The monitoring of pipeline sections up to 30 km long by means of a system
  • The opportunity of linking individual systems to form an overall system to monitor longer sections if necessary
  • The quantifying of leakage rates using model calculations
  • It is not necessary to empty and clean the pipeline before inspecting it
  • Shutting-down the pipeline is not necessary
  • Small quantities of escaping oil can be exactly detected and located
  • Damage can be identified in its early stages

The measuring system enables the temperature along a section of pipeline to be measured by using optical-fibre sensors. Temperature anomalies caused by leakages are identified via this system and the efficient location of leakages and long-term monitoring of gas and oil pipelines are thus made possible.

Read more:


De facto standard for seamless DTS integration: Direct link to SCADA


The intrinsic temperature measuring system DTS based on LIOS Technology’s design, with fibre optic sensors either installed within the power cable’s cross section (FIMT – Fibre in metal tube ) or attached to the exterior of the cable, makes it possible to record the temperature profile along an entire cable route continuously, and to pinpoint the exact location of hot spots within a metre.

Most commonly the measured temperature profile data is transmitted via standard interfaces from systems of the DTS as required, and be either displayed or further processed by PC, PLC or SCADA systems. As a result of the increasing demands placed on the ability to network and integrate measuring systems into management systems, LIOS offers network components that summarise DTS data from several DTS units and transport or convert it to the required network standards and protocols like Modbus, DNP3, IEC60870-5 or XML based data interfaces (e.g. POSC).

Equipped with the Embedded Communication Module (ECM) the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) evaluation unit is accessible by Ethernet/ LAN, holds its own IP address and is compatible with DHCP.
The on-board storage facility of measurement data provides automatic buffering of network break downs. It can handle multiple protocols, so the DTS can be directly linked to PLC or SCADA systems and communicates in various industrial protocol standards providing measured data and customised alarm information.
Hereby, the evaluation unit communicates as a TCP /IP server with several clients.

Features of the embedded communication module of the LIOS DTS controller:

  • Configuration and operation of the DTS via two independent channels:
    • RS232
    • Ethernet TCP/IP
  • Onboard storage of measurement data
    • Buffers up to 72 hours of measurement data and initiates data transfer automatically after communication link was re-established
    • Individual file access to measurement data through CHARON_02 (onboard data storage 1 GB)
  • Allows to operate individual Plug-In-Interfaces for customer specific protocol solutions
    • The DTS can communicate in parallel with its proprietary protocol and one or more customer specific protocols like DNP3, IEC60870-5-104, IEC61850, POSC WITSML, Modbus (Master/Slave) etc.
    • Individual assignments for protocols and client addresses (IP) possible
  • Ethernet communication to and from clients with high bandwidth
  • Module comes with built-in user configurable Firewall and enables reliable operation even in WAN’s
  • Secure data transmission and individual authorisation according TLS- Standard (RFC 2246)

The most common industrial protocols used in electrical systems worldwide are introduced in the following section. However, also other protocol standards are available or can be implemented for the ECM. Please contact us in case of questions.

The MODBUS protocol was published by Modicon in 1979. It is a quite simple single master – multiple slave protocol widely used in general purpose SCADA applications. It provides binary (bit) and 16-bit integer data, but no floating point values, polled by the master, i.e. the slave cannot send data spontaneously. The protocol specification is openly published and royalty-free. In the DTS ECM, TCP/IP is used as transport layer.

IEC 60870-5
IEC 60870-5 provides a communication profile for sending basic Telecontrol messages between systems. It was developed by the IEC Technical Committee 57 (Working Group 03) as a protocol standard for Telecontrol, Teleprotection, and associated telecommunications for electric power systems. The result of this work is IEC 60870-5. The protocol provides inter alia bit, integer and floating point data with or without time stamps. Data is transmitted from controlled stations (slaves) either by polling or spontaneously. In the ECM the IEC 60870-5-104 companion standard, defining standard TCP/IP connections as transport layer, is used.

DNP3 (Distributed Networking Protocol) is an open standard managed by the DNP User Group. Initially; the DNP3 protocol was developed by Westronic (now GE-Harris) in 1993. It is widely used in electrical systems worldwide, including North and South America, the UK, Southeast Asia, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. It has gained wider use beyond electrical utilities, e.g. for water supply as well. The DNP3 protocol is also referenced in IEEE Std. 1379-2000, which recommends a set of best practices for implementing modern SCADA Master-RTU/IED communication links.
The protocol provides bit, integer and floating point data and time stamps. Data is transmitted from the outstation (slave) either by polling or spontaneously. The ECM uses TCP/IP as transport layer, but even in this mode the DNP3 protocol additionally uses its own protocol stack for synchronisation and error checking. This provides extra security.

IEEE Lays Groundwork for Adoption of DNP3 Protocol as New IEEE Standard
IEEE, the world’s leading professional association for the advancement of technology announced that work is underway for the formal recognition of Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) as an IEEE standard. Designated as IEEE P1815, the standard will promote interoperability across hundreds of operational systems with thousands of installed devices, as well as strengthening security protocols while maintaining compatibility with existing object models.

Seen at EnergyCentral’ T&D News 19 January 2010


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Corporate head office:

LIOS Technology GmbH - Linear Optical Sensors
Schanzenstrasse 39
Building D9-D13
51063 Cologne (Köln)
Federal Republic of Germany

Tel: +49 221 99887-0
Fax: +49 221 99887-150

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Sales and technical support for North American market:

LIOS Technology Inc.
1400 Campus Drive West,
Morganville, New Jersey 07751
United States of America

Tel: +1 (732) 970 8062
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